Lunes, Enero 4, 2016


sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates economical input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation, education and entertainment (games) and video projection.
Sound functionality can also be integrated onto the motherboard, using components similar to plug-in cards. The best plug-in cards, which use better and more expensive components, can achieve higher quality than integrated sound. The integrated sound system is often still referred to as a "sound card". Sound processing hardware is also present on modern video cards with HDMI to output sound along with the video using that connector, previously they used a SPDIF connection to the motherboard or sound card.COPYRIGHT


video card (also called a video adapterdisplay cardgraphics cardgraphics boarddisplay adaptergraphics adapter or frame buffer[1]) is anexpansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor). Frequently, these are advertised as discrete or dedicatedgraphics cards, emphasizing the distinction between these and integrated graphics. Within the industry, video cards are sometimes called graphics add-in-boards, abbreviated as AIBs,[2] with the word "graphics" usually omitted.COPYRIGHT


modem (modulator-demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used with any means of transmitting analog signals, from light emitting diodes to radio. A common type of modem is one that turns thedigital data of a computer into modulated electrical signal for transmission over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data.
Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given unit of time, usually expressed in bits per second (symbol bit/s, sometimes abbreviated "bps"), or bytes per second (symbol B/s). Modems can also be classified by their symbol rate, measured in baud. The baud unit denotes symbols per second, or the number of times per second the modem sends a new signal. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency shift keying with two possible frequencies, corresponding to two distinct symbols (or one bit per symbol), to carry 300 bits per second using 300 baud. By contrast, the original ITU V.22 standard, which could transmit and receive four distinct symbols (two bits per symbol), transmitted 1,200 bits by sending 600 symbols per second (600 baud) using phase shift keying.COPYRIGHT

Power supply

power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to aselectric power converters. Some power supplies are discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.
Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from various types of energy sources, including electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices such as a batteries and fuel cells, electromechanical systems such as generators and alternatorssolar power converters, or another power supply.
All power supplies have a power input, which receives energy from the energy source, and a power output that delivers energy to the load. In most power supplies the power input and output consist of electrical connectors or hardwired circuit connections, though some power supplies employ wireless energy transfer in lieu of galvanic connections for the power input or output. Some power supplies have other types of inputs and outputs as well, for functions such as external monitoring and control.COPYRIGHT

computer speaker

Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are speakers sold for use with computers, although usually capable of other audio uses, e.g. for an MP3 player. Most such speakers have an internal amplifier, and consequently require a power source, which may be by a mains power supply often via an AC adapter, batteries, or a USB port (able to supply no more than 2.5W DC, 500mA at 5V). The signal input connector is often a 3.5 mm jack plug (usually color-coded lime green per thePC 99 standard); RCA connectors are sometimes used, and a USB port may supply both signal and power (requiring additional circuitry, and only suitable for use with a computer). Battery-powered wireless Bluetooth speakers require no connections at all. Most computers have speakers of low power and quality built in; when external speakers are connected they disable the built-in speakers. Altec Lansing claims to have created the computer speaker market in 1990.[1]
Computer speakers range widely in quality and in price.[2] Computer speakers sometimes packaged with computer systems are small, plastic, and have mediocre sound quality. Some computer speakers have equalization features such as bass and treble controls.
More sophisticated computer speakers can have a subwoofer unit, to enhance bass output. The larger subwoofer enclosure usually contains the amplifiers for the subwoofer and the left and right speakers.
Some computer displays have rather basic speakers built-in. Laptop computers have built-in integrated speakers, usually small and of restricted sound quality to conserve space.
Instead of using a computer speaker for better sound, a computer can be connected to any external sound system, typically a high-power high-quality setup.
An unusual design by HiWave Technologies, the DyadUSB USB-powered stereo audio amplifier module[3] used in the SoundScience QSB 30W Portable USB Speakers[4] allows a USB-powered and driven stereo speaker pair to supply 30W of power for short periods with a signal that has short high-power peaks and much lower average power, as most music and speech does. It stores energy from the USB connection during quieter periods, delivering high power for the peaks. (With a constant sine-wave input, power output cannot exceed the 2.5W that any USB speaker can deliver). The module is claimed to require less power most of the time, increasing laptop computer battery endurance, and delivering clean, unclipped sound peaks.COPYRIGHT


central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The term has been used in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.[2]
The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that fetches instructions from memory and "executes" them by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC). Some computers employ a multi-core processor, which is a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores"; in that context, single chips are sometimes referred to as "sockets".[3] Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central.